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Commentary on the Continuum of Personality Factors

(India, the United Kingdom, Singapore, South Africa, and the United States)


By Herbert J. DeGraffe, Ph.D. November 12, 2020


Examining the influence of employee outcome's detrimental consequences enhances the appropriate role of the despotic leadership's negative leadership type. The investigation into the continuum of leadership is a significant contributor to research on employee performance and creativity. According to Naseer et al. (2016), the interplay of two severe contextual components that are problematic due to the adverse influence of tyrannical leadership on employees provided insight. The oppressive authority, anticipated company politics, and leader–member exchange bring issues for investigation in employee quality, productivity, and inventiveness (Naseer et al., 2016). Authority is a dynamic interaction of the leader-follower relationship, and this study involved examining various perspectives on the bright and dark sides of leadership. The malevolence in executive leadership is an increasing concept of the measure in the dark triad.


The inventories have shown different dark triad patterns in the criticism for low validity and insufficient predictive power regarding the supportive psychometric properties. Social dominance is critical due to the malevolent personality that reflects a callous-manipulative core (Furnham et al., 2014). In addition, Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy are three encompassing malevolence traits identified here, according to Furnham et al. (2014). Many researchers have examined and argued whether the discussion should begin in psychology because the traits are diverse (Furnham et al., 2014). It was difficult to prove the three dark triad traits' primary measures from the research literature's extensive inventory.


However, arguments persist for the validity of research instruments in using nine traits rather than displaying good predictive validity in behavior paradigms using low dark triad inventories. These assumptions are the critical benchmark listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV). On the one hand, conceptualizations and antisocial personality disorder include impulsivity, aggression, and deceit. Are traits distinguishable from each other; however, on the other hand, more research is necessary for this measurement (Furnham et al., 2014) separation of a narcissistic personality disorder is a complicated character.


There is a sliding scale between top executives' positive and negative aspects within a personality factor continuum. It is this leader's behavior that emerges for examination in the dark side of leadership is becoming a concern for organizations in a globalized environment (Naseer et al., 2016). Reviewing the literature involves obstacles when interpreting the results of researchers who have used different methods and terminologies to identify personality factors that may correlate with behavior from a short- and long-term perspective (Day et al., 2013).


The personality factor is characteristic continuums that move as a sliding scale from positive to negative or bright to dark. These individual discrepancies in the situational and organizational factors influence dysfunctional leadership behaviors that coexist with the continuum of personality factor's bright-side and the dark-side characteristics (Naseer et al., 2016). Therefore, behavioral interpretation may be more applicable in moderation as a consistent pattern for a cultural view. Thus any tendency may simulate a virtue or an iniquity for a personality characteristic (Cullen, Gentry, & Yammarino, 2015). It is this connection between biased self-awareness and negative personality that is a concern by management. Researchers have understood this investigation of self-assessment, others' assessment, and cultural assessments' alignment to personality. (Cullen et al., 2015). There is no bearing on a situation when the embellishes weakness is an interpretation of the group's distinct depth in the biased self-analysis.


Consequently, the bright side personality spectrum continuum has been the focal point in leadership behavior studies (Gaddis & Foster, 2015). Research on intrinsic characteristics that facilitate these skills, such as wisdom, intelligence, and creativity, provides new insights into critical leader behaviors rather than technical knowledge. In contrast, according to Gaddis and 9 Foster (2015), positive personality characteristics can contribute to organizational success. However, due to the dark side continuum of personality, other personal attributes can lead to failure. The psychophysical system is a dynamic organization within individuals, and defining psychological factors and personality may determine leadership ability's effectiveness as a characteristic behavior (Chien, 2014). This study's theoretical models conformed to the individual, corporate, industrial, national, and societal behaviors.


My study is related to the implications of social change in leadership and organizational change initiatives. As a guide to how an organization can change, influence, affect, or impact all stakeholders' lives through the decision making process deep down and up the organizational infrastructure by understanding the continuum of personality factors. The continuum of personality factors is crucial but not as critical in recognizing the success of an organization.


The practical implications for leader attributes in the evolution of a corporation and the surveys relating to these dimensions describe both leader performance and outcomes (Seijts et al., 2015). There are questions regarding how increasing the importance of a leader's character can identify and develop leadership talent in an organization by an authoritative senior team (Seijts et al., 2015). The findings in Seijts et al. revealed three dimensions essential to individual and organizational success when leaders share the full dimensions of their character in all sectors of society. The study's examples showed that executives had weaved their leadership style into their developmental practice conversations in organizations and governments.


Individual variations may sway flawed leadership behavior that coexists between the continuums of characteristics. Learning from an encounter, perceptivity, and making intuitive decisions that concern failures, and looking at other problems management can gain knowledge from the interviews (Gaddis & Foster, 2015). Seven flawed personality styles (suspicious, shy, sad, pessimistic, sufferer, eccentric, and risk) adversely predict job performance. Gaddis and Foster (2015) investigated the relationship among the cloudy side of personality attributes, assignment, and contextual achievement to find connections between narcissism and discriminatory business behaviors when exploring relationships with the dark-side personality measures. Considering potential moderators and job performance is essential, and personality differences across cultures may serve as potential moderators for a country or a culture (Gaddis & Foster, 2015). Regardless of the variances, cultures remain entrenched in the standard framework of personality.


The overview of leadership abilities is a continuum of personality factors among individuals, and best expresses social interactions. Culture is a common element in connecting an individual and a civilization as a continuum that links innovations from generation to generation within individuals' negotiated space. In society's advancement as leaders, theories exist to frame the significance of leadership theories such as transformational, transactional, member exchange, servant leadership, and situational leadership. Researchers have created a significant amount of literature on coaches' vital role regarding leadership settings to align with organizational leadership.


Connections between leadership styles in the form of motivation and performance exist in the continuum of behavior. Some forms of leadership are less dependent on leadership from coaches, which is similar to business leadership. Researchers are finding many gaps in Sports psychology leadership literature to the social and communal relationships with teammates and coaches as individual-level measurements in assessing team-level constructs.

The different levels of a trait are adaptive to individual differences and attributed to the balance selection processes. Personality, characteristics, and traits are the genetic variation in maintenance due to a continuum of the different levels in a trait becoming adaptive under various environmental conditions. This is especially true when cultural dimensions and the personality traits in individualism–collectivism and tightness–looseness genetic variants derived from molecular genetics studies.


According to researchers, personality trait scores do not identify genetic variants that are significant and reliable in the association, as a particular trait may have thousands of common 81 genetic variants that appear in each as a minuscule effect. These selective migrations in cultural neuroscience affect the investigation of how culture and genes coevolve on neural architecture, cultural dimensions, and personality.


In the study, I investigated the assumptions between the relationship, athletic development personality factors, independent variables, collaboration, focus, trustworthiness, ethicalness, and leadership. They compare whether a defective side of the continuum in the personality factors agrees with this study's two hypotheses. Whether or not there is a significant relationship to the executive leadership decision making relates to age in decision-making. Any issues regarding company size, country and culture, age, and athletic development personality factors distinguish organizational leadership decision making. From a global perspective, the view compared executives from five countries: India, the United Kingdom, Singapore, South Africa, and the United States. The assumption may or may not dictate that the 114 activity is disruptive in executive leadership decision making, but the findings may or may not consistently relate across all five cultures.


For this reason, the subdimensions of leadership ability fit into four skillset groups: confidence, autonomy, people-oriented, and task-oriented (Chien, 2014). As a result, categorized leadership abilities are a continuum of personality factors expressed by describing a 134 relationship in the social interactions between individuals within and outside an organization.


Even though the findings from Gaddis and Foster's (2015) study were parallel with and beyond the five-factor model, 139 the statistical measures indicated a negative direction of unskilled and authoritative jobs connected to the dark-side personality measures in projecting performance. There is economic well-being to a developed country's relationship to negative correlation. This development between conscientiousness reduces the struggle within reasons in a continuum for the athletic type of personality factors (Church, 2016).

Survey Monkey's global audience and panel encompassed profiled population groups centered on participants' professional positions as director, manager, or decision maker in executive leadership.


Survey Monkey maintains a profile of company size, occupation status, age, education level, and the field of expertise for each participant's country. Although the rest of the studies followed a similar direction, there was no connection to the dark-side personality continuum regarding nonsignificant differences 140 between the relationship of the athletic development personality factors and decision making outcomes. The U.S. decision-making score was the lowest for the ethical aspect at .43, p < .05 (see Table 17). These results depended on the organizational answers from the directors, managers, or management decision makers' responses to the survey questions. Culture is a common element in connecting individuals and civilizations as a personality continuum linking generations' innovations within a person's negotiated space.






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